For connectivity between Devices we use different types of Network Cables, basically divided in 2 types Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) and Copper Cable.
Optical Fiber Cable:-
Different types of Connectors are used to connect OFC cables.
• SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds – up into the gigabits
• BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity
• DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be “refreshed” or strengthened.
• RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables.
• MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain.
As its name suggest these Network cables are made of copper also knows as Twisted Pair Cable. Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which pairs of wires (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from other wire pairs and from external sources. These cables use electricity to transfer data.
These Network cables are divided into different categories like cat 5, cat 5e, cat 6, cat 6a, cat 7, cat 7a, cat 8.1, cat 8.2 (till 2015). Major difference between these cables are because of use of copper quantity, which increase speed and performance of these cables.
Generally come with 4 Twisted pair (total 8 cables). 1 pair is used for Transmission(Tx), 1 for Receiving (Rx), 1 for VoIP, 1 for Power.
Distance: 100 mtrs, for more distance you will need a device in network at every 100 mrts.
Speed:- Speed of these cables depend upon their categories:-
Cat 5:- 100 Mbps
Cat 5e:- 100 Mbps with better testing standards.
Cat 6:- 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps)
Cat 6a:- 1 Gbps (with cable shielding)
Cat 7:- 10 Gbps
Cat 7a:– 10 Gbps (fully shielded cable, use all 4 pair)
Cat 8.1 & 8.2 :- In development but expected to support 40 Gbps
Connector:- These Network cables are have only one type of connector RJ45
Network machine use Tx and Rx pair differently, i.e Rx pair of Switch is Tx pair of Router/PC. Because of that we use different color codding while crimping connector on cables. Codding standard wildly used are T568A and T568B.
Depending upon color codding you are using, we define cables as Straight Cable , Cross Over (X-Over) cable, Rollover cable and VOIP cable.
- Straight Cable:- This Cable contain same color code at both end. Useful to connect
- Switch <-> PC
- Switch <-> Router
- Hub <-> PC
- Hub <-> Router
- DSL Modem <-> PC
- Cross Over (X-Over) Cable:- This able contain different color code at both end i.e T568A at one end and T568B at other end. Useful to connect
- Router <-> Router
- PC <-> PC
- Switch <-> Switch
- Roll over cable:- This cable is designed with reverse codding at other end i.e cable no. 1 will become 8, will become 7 and so on.. Useful to connect Console port of devices with Terminal server
- VIOP Cable:- These cables are used for PRI lines.
Note:- Although in practical world PC’s and Server are intelligent enough to detect Cross over and Straight cable, so that they can adjust their own interface setting according to them.